张 旗.波普尔科学哲学理论简介[J].甘肃地质,2021,(2):1-13
波普尔科学哲学理论简介
A Brief Introduction to Popper's Philosophy of Science
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  波普尔  知识增长的四段图式  证伪  证实  归纳  三个世界
英文关键词:Popper  the four phase pattern of the increase of scientific knowledge  trial and error method, refutation method and critical method  Three Worlds Theory
基金项目:中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所岩石圈演化国家重点实验室项目《镁铁—超镁铁岩大数据研究》(81300001)资助的研究
作者单位
张 旗 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所北京 100029 
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中文摘要:
      波普尔是当今伟大的哲学家,他发明了科学增长的四段图式:P1→TT→EE→P2,其中P1代表问题,TT表示试探性理论,EE表示试探性排除错误,P2代表新的问题。波普尔对科学哲学有很多贡献,如他否定了培根的归纳法,主张证伪的方法而反对证实的方法。他颠覆了关于真理的概念,反对将理论与真理联系起来,即使是相对真理。他认为,人不能认识真理,只能探索真理,接近真理,并提出“逼真性”与“逼真度”两个概念,从而否定了相对真理与绝对真理这一对矛盾的关系。他提出,科学理论的发展不是一个量变递增的过程,而是新理论取代旧理论的质变过程,是新范式战胜旧范式的科学革命。他认为,可证伪性、可错性是科学的本质特征,同时也是区分科学与非科学的根本标准。传统的认识论将宇宙划分为物质的与精神的两个世界,波普尔认为宇宙是多元的,多层次进化的,其性质是多样的,可分为三个层次或三个世界。波普尔的三个世界理论,用最简洁的语言表述即:物理世界(世界1)、精神世界(世界2)和客观知识世界(世界3)。世界3是人类智力活动的产物,是人造的;另一方面,它同时也是超人类的,即超越了自己的创造者。波普尔石破天惊地提出了科学哲学的许多惊世骇俗的理论,将科学哲学推到了一个崭新的高度,打破了科学界传统的认识论和方法论。他的哲学理论的核心是证伪主义,证伪就是试错,反驳,批判。只有经过证伪的理论(猜测,假说)才能称之为理论。中国科学需要波普尔理论,中国科学上不去,与我们没有证伪思想有很大的关系。我们必须拨乱反正,改弦易辙,采取批判的态度,反驳的方法,敢于试错,这样,中国科学才有希望。
英文摘要:
      Karl Popper, one of the greatest philosopher at present, innovated the four phase pattern of the increase of scientific knowledge: P1→TT→EE→P2, where P1, TT, EE and P2 represent initial problem, tentative theory, attempts at error-elimination, further problems that arise out of the critical process respectively. He made significant contribution to Philosophy of Science, negated Bacon's induction, advocated negativism methods and disproved positivism methods. He subverted the concept of truth, disapproved the connection between theory and truth, even relative truth. He mentioned that human cannot recognize the truth but can search for and approach it; he thus proposed two concepts of verisimilitude and fidelity, which disprove the contradiction between the absolute truth and relative truth. He proposed that the development of scientific theory is not a process of quantitative change, but that of qualitative change from old theory to new one, and that of scientific evolution from old paradigm to new one. He suggested that the 'falsifiability' and 'fallibility' are the core characteristic properties of science, and they are also the fundamental standards for identifying science and non-science. As suggested by Popper, the universe is multi-dimensional, multi-level evolution, and very diverse, and it can be divided into three parts: physical world (World 1), mental world (World 2), and objective knowledge world (World 3); whereas it is divided into physical world and mental world in traditional epistemology. His classification is called Popper's Three Worlds Theory. World 3, on one hand, is the product of human intellectual activities, i.e. artificial objectives; on the other hand, it is superhuman artificial objectives, i.e. beyond its creators. Popper's works include many tremendous theories in different fields of philosophy of sciences, promoting the philosophy to new level by breaking out the epistemology and methodology in traditional sciences. The concept of Popper's philosophy is falsificationism, which contains trial and error method, refutation method and critical method. Based on these methods, he suggested that only the hypothesis that are proved could be called theories. Popper's philosophy could be used in the society of Chinese sciences; in some cases, due to lack of falsificationism, the research level of Chinese sciences is low. Aiming to improve this level, we should bright order out of chaos by using refutation method and trial and error method.
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